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In most cases, people who need to demonstrate immunity through a Varicella titer will be studying or working in a healthcare setting. In this type of setting, there is an increased risk of being exposed to someone who has an active form of the varicella-zoster virus in their body (e.g. someone with the chickenpox). Schools and healthcare facilities are often required to make sure that anyone stepping into a healthcare setting has demonstrated Varicella immunity ahead of time through the Varicella titer in the event of an inadvertent exposure.
A Varicella vaccine is a weakened live version of the actual varicella-zoster virus (sometimes known as just VZV which is why the titer is sometimes known as a VZV titer) and is typically recommended after a negative Varicella titer result. The Varicella vaccine gives the recipient a very mild form of the chickenpox (usually without symptoms) and this serves as a way to expose the immune system to the Varicella infection. From this mild vaccine-induced illness, the immune system can develop and store a memory of the varicella-zoster virus and, if exposed in the future, can mount a powerful antibody response to protect the body.
For additional reading on the Varicella titer, please see the CDC website.